Regarding the bill, he said: “It is a threat to the Good Friday Agreement because it reopens the agreement reached with the EU, the Protocol on Northern Ireland, which has found a way to balance the problem and keep the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic open. The agreement was approved by voters across the island of Ireland in two referendums on 22 May 1998. In Northern Ireland, in 1998, during the referendum on the Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland, voters were asked whether they supported the multi-party agreement. In the Republic of Ireland, voters were asked whether they would allow the state to sign the agreement and authorize the necessary constitutional amendments (Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Ireland) to facilitate it. The two lawyers had to approve the agreement for it to enter into force. In a context of political violence during the unrest, the agreement committed participants to “exclusively democratic and peaceful ways to resolve disputes over political issues.” On 10 October, Johnson and Taoiseach Leo Varadkar had “very positive and very promising” talks that led to a resumption of negotiations and a week later, on 17 October, Johnson and Jean-Claude Juncker announced that they had agreed on a new withdrawal agreement (subject to ratification) replacing the Backstop with a new protocol on Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.  The agreement was reached after many years of complex discussions, proposals and compromises. A lot of people have contributed a lot. Tony Blair and Bertie Ahern were then leaders of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The talks were led by US Special Envoy George Mitchell.  5 For anyone attempting to describe the Irish border as it is today, the exercise is very similar to the description of an internal European border. The Irish border looks and functions like any intra-European border that liberates goods, services, capital and population.2 However, unlike other European borders, the situation on the island of Ireland is not the only result of London and Dublin`s accession to the EEC/EU since 1973.
It is first and foremost the result of a political compromise between the two Irish communities and between the two sovereign states enshrined in the GFA. Until the 1998 peace agreement and although the two sovereign states were members of the EEC/EU, the Irish border had remained very different from other European borders. It has been closely monitored and militarized. The number of routes crossing the border was limited, which hampered international passenger transport and cross-border trade in goods, services and capital.3 A new analysis we have just concluded shows that Parliament`s objection to the backstop amounts to an implicit rejection of the Good Friday Agreement, the agreement that ended the armed conflict in Northern Ireland. . . .